Masarykova univerzita Filozofická fakulta Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky




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Masarykova univerzita

Filozofická fakulta


Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky

FF AJ Anglický jazyk


PhDr. Katarína Nemčoková


DISCOURSE STRATEGIES OF STORYTELLING, INTERTEXTUALITY AND METAPHOR IN AMERICAN PRINTED ADVERTISING


Disertační práce


Školitelka: prof. PhDr. Ludmila Urbanová, CSc.


2012


I hereby declare that I worked on this thesis independently using only the sources listed in references.

...........................................................


Acknowledgements

I owe my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, prof. PhDr. Ludmila Urbanová, CSc. Her expertise, constant scholarly and personal encouragement, motivating support and patience enabled me to write this dissertation. She has been a teacher who every student longs to meet in the course of their studies.

My special thanks belong to Gregory Jason Bell, my dear friend and colleague, for his invaluable editorial comments and language supervision.

I would also like to thank to Juraj Hrúz for his acute observations, challenging discussions and help with statistics.

Finally, my endless gratitude belongs to my wonderful support team – my dear family and friends, who always seem to do the right things.

Contents


Introduction 5

2 Notions and Concepts of Advertising Communication 11

2.1 Categories within the Genre of Advertisements 13

2.2 Categories of Product Consumer Ads 15

2.2.1 Categories Based on Media of Distribution 15

2.2.2 Categories Based on the Targeted Recipients 15

2.2.3 Categories Based on the Marketing Techniques 16

2.3 Corpus Description 18

2.4 The Context of Advertising Communication 23

2.4.1 The Conjunctures of Advertising Communication 24

2.4.2 The Structure of an Advertising Message 29

2.4.3 The Goal of Advertising Communication 34

2.4.4 The Sender of the Advertising Message 40

2.4.5 The Recipient of the Advertising Message 42

2.4.6 The Sender and the Recipient in the Social Power Context 43

2.4.7 Magazines as the Channel of Advertising Communication 45

2.4.8 Display Product Consumer Ads as a Sub-genre 48

3 Mental Space as a Common Interpretive Principle 50

4 Storytelling as a Discourse Strategy 53

4.1 Advertising Stories 56

4.1.1 Fictional Stories 56

4.1.2 Hinted Stories 60

4.1.3 True Account Stories 67

4.1.4 Plot-lines Conclusion 77

4.2 Storytelling Cues 78

4.2.1 Time Sequencing of Events as a Storytelling Cue 79

4.2.2 Characters as Storytelling Cues 80

4.2.3 Location 86

4.3 Cues Conclusion 87

5 Intertextuality as a Discourse Strategy 89

5.1 The Phenomenon of Intertextuality 89

5.1.1 Genre and Voice in Intertextual References 90

5.2 The Functions of Intertextuality 92

5.2.1 Intertextuality and Associations in Mental Space 92

5.2.2 Intertextuality and Products in a New Context 93

5.3 Types of Intertextuality 94

5.4 Intertextuality in Print Advertising 95

5.4.1 Illustration-Depicted Intertextuality 95

5.4.2 Mass Culture Intertextuality 106

5.4.3 Non-Specific Multigeneric Intertextuality 112

5.4.4 Multigeneric Intertextuality Scale 121

5.4.5 Heteroglossic Intertextuality 123

5.5 Concluding Remarks on Intertextuality in Ads 133

6 Metaphor as a Discourse Strategy 135

6.1 Metaphor as a Cognitive Device 135

6.1.2 Functions of Metaphors 135

6.1.3 Presence of Metaphors in Printed Ads 136

6.1.4 Metaphors Used as a Discourse Strategy in Advertising 137

6.1.5 Creating and Filling the Mental Space with Metaphors 138

6.2 Metaphors Used as a Discourse Strategy 140

6.2.1 Distribution in the Corpus under Investigation 141

6.2.2 Revealing Metaphors 142

6.2.3 Ideological Metaphors 162

6.3 Conclusion on Metaphor as a Discourse Strategy 166

7 Overlapping Discourse Strategies 167

7.1 Storytelling and Intertextuality 168

7.2 Storytelling and Metaphor 170

7.3 Intertextuality and Metaphor 174

7.4 Storytelling, Intertextuality and Metaphor 177

8 Statistical Summary 183

9 Conclusion 188

9.1 Functioning of Storytelling, Intertextuality and Metaphor as Discourse Strategies 188

9.2 The Principle of Undercoding 189

9.3 Power Relations in Advertising Discourse 189

9.4 Strategies Revisited 191

9.4.1 Storytelling 192

9.4.2 Intertextuality 194

9.4.3 Metaphor 197

9.5 Hypotheses Revisited 200

Bibliography 202

Corpus Material 212

APPENDICES 214

Appendix I: Glossary of Terms 214

Appedix II: Corpus of Ads (Textual Parts) 225

Appendix III: Corpus of Ads (Full Ads) 278



We shall not cease from exploration

And the end of all our exploring

will be to arrive where we started

And know the place for the first time.

(T. S. Eliot: Little Gidding (V), No. 4 of “Four Quartets”)
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